Engaging Extremists: Trade-Offs, Timing, and Diplomacy
Zartman, I W and Faure, G O (eds) (2011). Washington DC USA: USIP.
For many, negotiating with terrorists amounts to capitulation that only encourages more terrorism. The editors of this book, by contrast, argue that engaging extremists is an indispensable part of a broad policy that is complex in its tactics and deliberate in its balance. While recognizing that engagement carries many risks, they contend that it is not the act of negotiation that encourages or discourages terrorism; it is the terms of the negotiated agreement. The point is not whether to negotiate but how to negotiate creatively to moderate terrorist means.
Engaging Extremists concerns negotiation with political terrorist organizations, separating terrorist groups that can be engaged from those that, for the moment, cannot. Dealing with terrorism includes keeping violent means in check, transforming its ends from destruction to participation, and undercutting the grievances on which it is based. The essays in this volume tackle the questions of “when” and “how” with a mixture of conceptual discussions illustrated by case analyses. By approaching terrorism as a phase in conflict by ethnic, religious, ideological, and other groups, the first half of this volume identifies appropriate times and tactics for taking advantage of the terrorist organization’s life cycle from when it begins, matures, and declines. The latter half focuses more specifically on the “how” by studying successful experiments in engaging future and past terrorists, the role of third-party mediators, and two case studies of failed negotiations with terrorists. In the face of terrorism and militant extremism, states must strike a delicate balance between isolation and engagement. Engaging Extremists provides valuable insight into when and how such engagement might be pursued.
Introduction: Why and Why Not Engage? - I. William Zartman and Guy Olivier Faure
Part I: When to Engage
Determining Strategic Moments - I. William Zartman and Guy Olivier Faure
Growing Up in Groups - I. William Zartman and Maha Khan
Growing Out in Organization - William Donohue and Moty Cristal
Community Intervention as a Negotiation Strategy: Al-Qaeda in London - Robert Lambert
Terror, Muscle, and Negotiation: Failure of Multiparty Mediation in Sri Lanka - Maria Groeneveld-Savisaar and Sinisa Vukovic
U.S. Policy toward Nationalist Terrorist Organizations: Isolate or Engage? - Stacie L. Pettyjohn
Part II: How to Engage
Devising Strategy and Tactics - I. William Zartman and Guy Olivier Faure
Facing Terrorism: Engagement and De-escalaiton - Camille Pecastaing
Egypt's Gama'a Islamiya: Change through Debate? - Carolin Goerzig
Tactics in Negotiations between States and Extremists: The Role of Cease-Fires and Counterterrorist Measures - Kristine Höglund
Eluding Peace? Negotiating with Colombia's ELN - Aldo Civico
Part III: Conclusion
Conclusion: When and How to Engage? - I. William Zartman and Guy Olivier Faure
About the Editors
I. William Zartman is the Jacob Blaustein professor of international organization and conflict resolution and director of the African Studies and Conflict Management programs at the Johns Hopkins University's Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C.
Guy Olivier Faure is professor of sociology at the Sorbonne University, Paris V, and a member of the Steering Committee of the Processes of International Negotiation (PIN) Program. He also engages in consulting and training activities with enterprises, multinational companies, governments, and international organizations.