Power and Negotiation
Zartman IW, Rubin, J Z (eds.) (2000). The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Power and Negotiations produces new findings about the concept of power and about its applications in negotiations. Rejecting the notions of power as a resource and power as an ability, the work defines power as an act that is designed to cause another party to move in a desired direction, thus separating the concept both from its source and from its effects and leaving it open to much more detailed analysis. At the same time, this book examines perceived power on the basis of which symmetries and asymmetries in the relations between parties can be identified.
As I. William Zartman and Jeffrey Rubin argue, negotiations between countries that are not equal in power tend to be more efficient and effective than during symmetrical negotiations. When weaker and stronger parties are negotiating, each knows its role and is able to get appropriate benefits in the agreement. In cases of symmetry or near symmetries, the countries, whether equally weak or equally strong, tend to spend most of the time maintaining their status and allowing inordinate amounts of time to pass before reaching an agreement. These conclusions run counter to the most accepted wisdom of negotiations although they do confirm evidence from careful experiments.
The book looks at negotiations with clear asymmetry (the Canada-U.S. free trade agreement, U.S.-Egyptian aid, U.S.-Indonesian aid, E.C.-Andorra trade association, Nepal-India water resource agreement, and the North-South coalitions at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development), two cases of symmetry (the Mali-Burkina Faso armistice negotiations and the U.S. Chinese armistice negotiations in Korea), and one mixed situation (Arab-Israeli peace negotiations). The book concludes with a careful examination of lessons for practice and lessons for theory.
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1 The Study of Power and the Practice of Negotiation I. William Zartman and Jeffrey Z. Rubin
PART II: CASES OF ASYMMETRY
Asymmetry in Negotiating the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement, 1985-1987 Gilbert R. Winham and Elizabeth DeBoer-Ashworth
US-Indonesian Negotiations over the Conditions of Aid, 1951-1954 Timo Kivimäki
US-Egyptian Aid Negotiations in the 1980s and 1990s William M. Habeeb
The Andorra-European Community Trade Agreement Negotiations, 1979-1987 Guy Olivier Faure and Patrick Klaousen
Nepal-India Water Resource Relations Dipak Gyawali
The Impact of Multiple Asymmetries on Arab-Israeli Negotiations Saadia Touval
Asymmetry in Multilateral Negotiation between North and South at UNCED Gunnar Sjöstedt
PART III: CASES OF NEAR SYMMETRY
Compensating for Weak Symmetry in the Mali-Burkana Faso Conflict, 1985-1986 Jean-Emmanual Pondi
Seeking Honor under Strong Symmetry in the Korean War Armistice Negotiations Xibo Fan
PART IV: POWER AND INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS
Lessons for Practice Jeswald W. Salacuse
Symmetry and Asymmetry in Negotiation I. William Zartman and Jeffrey Z. Rubin